KBT results table.png

BCA's Super Low Energy Building (SLEB) programme is Singapore's attempt to push the boundaries of energy efficiency to go beyond current Green Mark Platinum standards. 5 technologies were selected, including DCI to be implemented in Keppel Bay Tower for a year.

Keppel Bay Tower, Singapore

18-storey commercial building

Certified Platinum Green Mark building by BCA (Building Construction Authority)

Air-conditioned area of ~36,000 m2, with 2330 RT installed cooling capacity


Baseline data was collected from period 01 Nov 2018 - 30 Nov 2018.

Existing maintenance regime:

  • Scheduled chemical dosing system

  • Automatic Tube Cleaning System’ in chillers’ condensers

Energy data was collected with the help of Johnson Control from the BMS.

Make-up water data was collected from BMS.

Blow-down readings collected Bi-weekly for 3 months pre-deployment, and weekly post deployment.

Results Post Deployment

DCI was deployed 1 Dec 2018.

Chemical dosing and auto tube cleaning systems were shut off upon deployment.

Water and Energy

Water and Energy results are summarised in the table below:

For the study on energy use, a total of 9,571 data points were taken for baseline and post deployment and regression analysis performed. 

The graph below clearly shows the improvement in efficiency across cooling loads. With Green data points being the baseline data, and Yellow points being post deployment data taken in January 2019 and February 2020.





















Bacteria Control

Upon deployment of DCI, chemical dosing for control of Bacteria was halted.

Results show DCI could maintain a lower bacteria count than chemical methods. 

Below is a summary of test results over half a year from an accredited lab in Singapore for Heterotrophic Bacteria Count and Legionella Bacteria Count.

















Corrosion Control

Corrosion control test was performed using Corrosion Coupons and tested by an accredited lab.

Test Period        :   18 Jan 2019 - 18 Jul 2019

Test Duration    :   6 Months

Excellent standard for mild steel is less than 3.0 MPY. DCI achieved 1.18 MPY.

Excellent standard for copper is less than 1.0 MPY. DCI achieved 0.03 MPY.

On the right are the corrosion coupons after 6 months, and below are the results.

KWRT Graph.png